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And it was under his presidency that Bolivia's 2009 constitution recognised collective indigenous rights. In fact, the escalating conflicts over the highway pushed the Brazilian ambassador to freeze funds until the conflict with indigenous groups is resolved. The Morales government has repeatedly suggested that the further expansion of extractive industries and megaprojects is on his political agenda.In July, Bolivia’s Minister of Hydrocarbons and Energy, Jose Luis Gutierrez, announced the possibility of oil exploration in the TIPNIS, where reserves appear to be significant.Just as neoliberal programmes did in the 1990s, leftist governments from Bolivia to Brazil continue to bypass indigenous consultation to open up protected territories to megaprojects by national and international corporations.Where, then, to locate indigenous peoples on the social agendas of leftist governments? People are no less citizens for living in the Amazon, and governments should not feel less accountable to indigenous peoples - in fact, it should be quite the contrary.The 190-mile highway would link the agricultural region of Beni with the commercial crossroads of Cochabamba.In addition to cutting travel time in half, the route strategically short-circuits Santa Cruz, a region that has staunchly opposed Morales' presidency.Two-thirds of Ecuador’s land in the Amazon area is zoned for oil concessions.These areas often overlap with autonomous territories.
Although negotiations are in sight, what seems like a mere controversy over a local issue may in fact be representative of Latin America’s broader tensions with its indigenous population.In fact, the latest report by the UN Special Rapporteur on the rights of indigenous peoples stresses that megaprojects and extractive industries are becoming the greatest challenges to the exercise of indigenous rights.Beyond the issue of consultation, the TIPNIS case brings to light the conflicted relationship of Latin America’s New Left with indigenous autonomy.This is the latest in series of indigenous protests against megaprojects developed on indigenous lands without consultation.
The TIPNIS - the Isiboro Secure Indigenous Territory and National Park - is both a national park and an autonomous territory held in common by the Yuracare, Moxeno and Chiman peoples.Add or subtract the given number of hours to/from Budapest time to get the time in these cities.